World Peace through States.
Subpage to the page " PRO RE PUBLICA" by Christian Heinze - 14th October 2017
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The whole world desires peace and well-being. Peace and well-being consist primarily in the control of violence, and particularly so as, since the short while of little more than 70 years, the development of the atom bomb endangers the continued existence of mankind.

In view of the aggressiveness of many people on the one hand and of the regional and social differences of their conditions and habits of life on the other, their aggressive violence can only be controlled by means of a superior power which is exercised permanently and basically at all times and everywhere within a limited territory and over its population, and which is described as a "State " throughout this homepage. A state consists in a minimum of legislation and exercise of executive and judicial power entertaining internal order. In order to provide world peace, States must cover the whol inhabited surface of the earth.

World peace requires, on top of the control of violence, the recognition of equal value and of equal claims for existence and for the unfolding of life as well as a minimum of order and contentment for every human being.

Owing to their accumulation of superior power, States are, relative to the number of their populations and their comand of technolgy capable not only of controlling violence but also of its aggressive employment up to, in case of their coand of the atom bomb, the termination of the existence of mankind. Their activity must not contravine the interest in peace.

Ensurance of peace within each State is a matter for the State himself. For its achievement requirements of general application exit, which can be deducted from experience and contemplation with the help of reason. Their observation is not guaranteed by any superior instance or organization except when such an organization fulfills the criteria of statehood itself. The obersvation of the requirements mentioned is eventually guaranteed by the self preservation of the power of the State and by the population of the state territory that carries the State which throughout history has always proven superior to all other powers in the long run.

External peace between States takes place when States principally refrain from intervening into the affairs of other States but defend themselves against such intervention, and if they regulate the pursuit of their international interests by means of international contracts and obey their commitments. If, however, intervention takes place, peace can prevail if such intervention does not infringe the essentials of the superior power of the State subject to intervention. In case when a State is reduced or destroyed, peace requires immediate establishment of another State in place of the affected one in the territory and over the people concerned.

International contracts can condense into international Organisations that regulate their international interests in conformity with and with the help of the internal order of their member States through individual decisions or concerted acts. Even International hegemonies of States can be envisaged which are compatibel with or enhancive for the objective of peace. Both organizations or hegemonies may not however endanger the existence of their constituent or affected States. This latter reservation serves to distinguish a hegemony from an Epire.

The notion of State employed here is a notion of being as distinguished from a notion of ought. It has no normative or legal meaning. The notion of "right" or "law" is employed in this homepage only as the entity of rules and decisions made or observed by man and concerning human behaviour and their obeyance or enforcement permanently in fact and effectively guaranteed by a State basically everywhere in its territory and in each individual case of conflict. Such legal rules are relevant as means of government and emanations of States only. This notion of State differs from those in traditional use insofar as it is not associated with any particular, for example dynastic, national or religious ideologies or historical traditions.

The verifiation of an established peace-order of a State within a defined territory and over its population depends on certain additional criteria which may derive from the rules of nature and to which belongs the nature of man. These criteria are themselves notions of being and should not be confused with the idea of "natural law". There can be no "natural law" in the meaning of "right" and "law" as used in this homepage, because nature does not basically enforce rules made or observed by man for human behaviour.

The defining criterion of permance of States comprises a certain permanence which is determined by the expectation of their effectivity. It does not mean that States cannot be reshaped. What may well be changed is the coordination of territory and/or people with a particular State, which may also perish or be created initially. Such alterations may well comply with or even prove necessary in the the interest of world peace.

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